Introduction of Computer

  • The era of 20th century has witnessed rapid development sin science and technology influencing every aspect of human life. One of the greatest things that man has ever created is, perhaps, ‘the Computer’. The computer is truly an amazing machine. Computer is being used in areas of administration, medicine, education, sports, defence, shops, home, markets and many more. Computer and Information Technology (IT), in recent years, has become an integral part of our life. We can see it almost everywhere.
  • A computer is an electronic machine that helps to process data. It is used to solve problems relating to almost all fields such as education, home, medicine, science and technology, research, designing, publishing, communication etc.
  • A computer is an information-processing and information-accessing tool. This means that a computer accepts some information or data from the outside world. It processes it to produce a new information.
  • Information processing is the essence of computing.

Meaning of Computer:

The word computer has derived from an English word ‘Compute’, which means ‘to calculate’.

  • Computer is an electronic device which processes the input informations according to the given set of instructions, called programs.
  • Blaise Pascal had developed the first mechanical calculator in 1642 AD, which is called ‘Pascalene’.
  • The credit of developing first computer program goes to Lady Ada Augusta, a student of Babbage.
  • Howard Ekin developed the first Mechanical Computer ‘Mark-I’ in 1937.
  • J.P. Ekart and John Moschley invented world’s first electronic computer ‘ENIAC-I’ in 1946 and Paved the way for first revolution in the field of calculating machine or computer. Electronic Valve or Vacuum Tube was used as a switch in the computer.
  • John Van Newman invented EDVAC (Electronic Descrete Variable Computer) in 1951, in which he used Stored Program. The credit of using Binary System in computers also goes to him. Indeed Mr. Newman contributed most in the development of computer and thus gave a right direction to the Computer Revolution (Second Revolution)

Importance of Computer in Today Life

Computers have become an indispensable part of society today directly impacting how we work, communicate, study, conduct business, socialize and manage everyday functions. Serving as an extension of the human brain's complex processing abilities, Computers enable accomplishing both simple and highly complex tasks much faster with greater accuracy than manual approaches. Over the decades, continuous advances making Computers smaller yet more powerful at reduced costs have meant extensive proliferation benefitting humanity enormously.

Significance in Workplaces & Businesses

The advent of Computers has profoundly transformed professional work processes and business operations by automating repetitive clerical tasks, speeding information exchange and enabling data-driven analytics & decision making. Computerized enterprise systems like ERPs, CRMs improve efficiency by seamlessly coordinating complex supply chain, manufacturing, inventory and accounting functions saving huge manual efforts. High-tech R&D, product design, 3D modelling and forecasting relies extensively on computational number crunching abilities impossible manually. Computers facilitate global collaborations through instant communication applications and also enable working remotely. Overall, Computers multiply business productivity, strategic capabilities and opportunities for revenue growth.

Role in Education

Computers and internet have disrupted traditional education models allowing customized, collaborative and self-paced remote learning accessible to wider student base. Advanced simulations, 3D visualizations and gaming elements facilitate experiential teaching-learning suited for visual learners. Digital databases, e-libraries and search engines enable instant access to latest study materials. Computer-based exams, biometrics attendance allows efficient assessments. Online discussion forums, seminars further 24x7 knowledge exchange globally. Educational apps and software enable analyzing student performance providing feedback. By bridging geographical barriers while optimizing costs, Computers significantly enhance quality, outreach and administration capabilities of academic institutions.

Contribution to Scientific Progress

Computers have accelerated scientific research and innovation through computational analysis of vast volumes of intricate data otherwise impossible for human minds. Modeling complex molecular structures, weather systems, interstellar phenomena, automotive engineering dynamics would require years without simulation software crunching billion computations per second. High performance computing systems allow scientists handle gigantic databases like human genome sequences, seismic sensors recordings which gets processed through complex algorithms generating solutions and predictions. SuperComputers assist machine learning, artificial intelligence and advanced automation research enabling next-gen innovations. By running accurately simulated digital twins of products/processes, Computers minimize physical prototyping costs and testing risks accelerating R&D.

Undoubtedly, Computers linked with internet have permeated the very fabric of modern existence just like electricity did 100 years back transforming lifestyles forever through pathbreaking capabilities in information access, communication, education, business efficiency and scientific advancements. Yet Computers remain essentially dumb slaves performing predefined instructions at lightning speeds with no innate intelligence yet. But future breakthroughs in quantum and optical computing promise to push computational might towards unimaginable horizons. With AI and machine learning milestones getting surpassed, Computers seem destined to eventually equal and possibly overtake human intelligence one day.

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