Important Parts, Articles of the Constitution

Parts & Articles of Indian Constitution




Part I

Article 1-4

The Union and its territory.

Part II

Article 5-11


Part III

Article 12-35

Fundamental Rights.

Art. 12


Art. 13

Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights

Art. 14-18 (Right to Equality)

Art. 14

Equality before law

Art. 15

Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth

Art. 16

Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.

Art. 17

Abolition of untouchability

Art. 18

Abolition of titles

Art. 19-22 (Right to Freedom)

Art. 19

Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc.

Art. 20

Protection in respect of conviction for offences.

Art. 21

Protection of life and personal liberty

Art. 21A

Right to education

Art. 22

Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Art. 23-24 (Right against Exploitation)

Art. 23

Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour

Art. 24

Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc.

Art. 25-28 (Right to Freedom of Religion)

Art. 25

Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion

Art. 26

Freedom to manage religious affairs

Art. 27

Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion

Art. 28

Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions

Art. 29-30 (Cultural and Educational Rights)

Art. 29

Protection of interests of minorities

Art. 30

Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions

Saving of certain Laws

Art. 31A

Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates etc.

Art. 31B

Validation of certain Acts and Regulations

Art. 31C

Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles

Art. 32-35 (Right to Constitutional Remedies)

Art. 32

Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part

Art. 33

Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces etc.

Art. 34

Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area

Art. 35

Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part

Part IV

Article 36-51

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)

Art. 36


Art. 37

Application of the principles contained in this Part

Art. 38

State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people

Art. 39

Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State

Art. 39A

Equal justice and free legal aid

Art. 40

Organisation of village Panchayats

Art. 41

Right to work, to education and to publicassistance in certain cases


Provision for just and humane conditions ofwork and maternity relief

Art. 43

Living wage etc for workers

Art. 43A

Participation of workers in management of industries

Art. 43B

The State shall endeavour to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control and professional management of co-operative societies.

Art. 44

Uniform civil code for the citizens

Art. 45

Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years

Art. 46

Promotion of educational and economic interest of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections

Art. 47

Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health

Art. 48

Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry Art. 48A Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life

Art. 49

Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance


Separation of judiciary from executive


Promotion of international peace and security

Part IVA

Article  51A

Fundamental Duties

Part V

Chapter 1: Article 52-78

The Union

Art. 52

The President of India

Art. 53

Executive power of the Union

Art. 54

Election of President

Art. 61

Procedure for impeachment of the President

Art. 63

The Vice-President of India

Art. 64

The Vice-President to be ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States

Art. 65

The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence of President

Art. 66

Election of Vice-President

Art. 72

Power of President to grant pardons etc and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases

Art. 74

Council of Ministers to aid and advise President

Art. 76

Attorney General for India

Art. 77

Conduct of business of the Government of India

Art. 78

Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc

Chapter 2: Article 79-122


Art. 79

Constitution of Parliament

Art. 80

Composition of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha)

Art. 81

Composition of the House of the People (Lok Sabha)

Art. 83

Duration of Houses of Parliament

Art. 84

Qualification for membership of Parliament

Art. 85

Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution

Art. 86

Right of President to address and send messages to Houses

Art. 87

Special address by the President

Art. 88

Rights of Ministers and Attorney General as respects Houses

Art. 89

The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States

Art. 90

Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman

Art. 93

The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People

Art. 94

Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker

Art. 95

Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker

Art. 98

Secretariat of Parliament

Art. 99

Oath or affirmation by members

Art. 100

Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum

Art. 105

Powers, privileges etc of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof

Art. 106

Salaries and allowances of members

Art. 107

Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills

Art. 108

Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases

Art. 109

Special procedure in respect of Money Bills

Art. 110

Definition of 'Money Bills'

Art. 111

Assent to Bills

Art. 112

Annual financial statement (Budget)

Art. 113

Procedurein Parliament with respect to estimates

Art. 114

Appropriation Bills

Art. 115

Supplementary, additional or excess grants

Art. 116

Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants

Art. 117

Special provisions as to financial Bills

Art. 118

Rules of procedure


Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business

Art. 120

Language to be used in Parliament

Art. 121

Restriction on discussion in Parliament

Art. 122

Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament

Chapter 3: Article 123

Legislative Powers of the President

Art. 123

Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament

Chapter 4: Article 124-147

The Union Judiciary

Art. 124

Establishment and Constitution of Supreme Court

Art. 125

Salaries etc. of Judges

Art. 126

Appointment of acting Chief Justice (in the Supreme Court)

Art. 127

Appointment of ad hocJudges (in the Supreme Court)

Art. 128

Attendance of retired Judge at sittings of the Supreme Court

Art. 129

Supreme Court to be a Court of record

Art. 130

Seat of Supreme Court

Art. 131

Original jurisdiction of Supreme Court

Art. 132

Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Court in certain cases

Art. 133

Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Court in regard to chii matters

Art. 134

Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters Art. 134A Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court

Art. 135

Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court

Art. 136

Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court

Art. 137

Review of judgements or orders by the Supreme Court

Art. 138

Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court

Art. 141

Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all Courts

Art. 143

Power of President to consult Supreme Court

Art. 144

Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court

Art. 145

Rules of Court, etc.

Art. 146

Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court

Art. 147


Chapter 5: Article 148-151

Comptroller and Auditor-General of India

Art. 148

Comptroller and Auditor-General of India

Art. 149

Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General

Art. 150

Form of accounts of the Union and of the States

Art. 151

Audit reports

Part VI

Article 152-237

The States - The Government at the State level: The Executive, The State Legislature, The High Courts and Subordinate Courts

Part VII

Article 238

The States in Part B of the First Schedule


Article 239-241

The Union Territories

Part IX

Article 243 to 243-O

The Panchayats

Part IXA

Article 243-P to 243-ZG

The Municipalities

Part IXB

Article 243-ZH to 243-ZT

The Co-operative Societies

Part X

Article 244-244A

The Scheduled and Tribal Areas

Part XI

Article 245-263

Relations between The Union and The States

Part XII

Article 264-300

Finance, property, contracts and suits; Distribution of revenue between Union and States; Finance Commission; Borrowing, Property, Contracts, Rights, Liabilities, Obligations and Suits.

Art. 268

Taxes are levied and collected by the centre but distributed between the centre and the states.

Art. 300A

Right to Property


Article 301-307

Trade, commerce and inter-course within India

Part XIV

Article 308-323

Services Under The Union and The States

Art. 308

Services Under The Union and The States

Art. 309

Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State

Art. 310

Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State

Art. 311

Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State

Art. 312

All-India Services

Art. 315

Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States

Art. 316

Appointment and term of office of members

Art. 317

Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission

Art. 318

Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission

Art. 320

Functions of Public Service Commissions

Art. 321

Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions

Art. 323

Reports of Public Service Commissions


Article 323A-323B


Part XV

Article 324-329


Art. 324

Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission

Art. 325

No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral rcil on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex

Art. 326

Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage

Art. 327

Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to legislatures

Art. 328

Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature

Art. 329

Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters

Part XVI

Article 330-342

Special provisions for certain classes


Article 343-351

Official languages


Article 352-360

Emergency Provisions

Art. 352

Proclamation of National Emergency

Art. 356

Proclamation of State Emergency

Art. 360

Proclamation of Financial Emergency

Part XIX

Article 361-367



Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures

Art. 363

Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties, agreements etc.

Art. 363A

Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to be abolished

Art. 364

Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes

Art. 365

Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by the Union

Part XX

Article 368

Amendment of the Constitution

Part XXI

Article 369-392

Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions—Special status of States


Article 393-395

Short Title, Commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals

Some other Information


A Lokpal is an 'Ombudsman' in India. It has jurisdiction over all members of Parliament (MPs), the Prime Minister (with certain exceptions), ministers and all Civil servants etc in cases of corruption. Lokpal is empowered to sanction prosecution.

  • The amended 'Lokpal and Lokayukta Bill 2011' was passed by Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha on 17th and 18th December, 2013 respectively, Samajwadi Party opposed the Bill.
  • A high-level selection committee led by the Prime Minister had recommended the appointments for chairperson and members of the Lokpal. The President approved the appointments.
  • President Ram Nath Kovind had on the 23rd March, 2019 administered the oath of office to Justice Pinaki Chandra Ghose as the country's first Lokpal.
  • Justice Ghose, 66, retired as Supreme Court judge in May 2017. He last served as member of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC).
  • All eight newly-appointed members of anti-corruption ombuds man Lokpal on the 27th March, 2019 took oath of office. They were administered the oath by Lokpal chairperson Justice Pinaki Chandra Ghose.
  • Former Chief Justices of different high courts-Justices Dilip B Bhosale, Pradip Kumar Mohanty, Abhilasha Kumari and Ajay Kumar Tripathi-took oath as Judicial  members in the Lokpal.
  • Former first woman chief of Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) Archana Ramasundaram, ex-Maharashtra chief secretary Dinesh Kumar Jain, former IRS officer Mahender Singh and Gujarat cadre ex-IAS officer Indrajeet Prasad Gautam were swom-in as the Lokpal's non-Judicial members.


  • The Institution of 'Ombudsman1 is typically Scandinavian.
  • The office of Ombudsman has been in existence since 1809 in Sweden, [also in Finland (Since 1919), Denmark (1955), Norway and New Zealand (1962)].
  • Maharashtra is the first state in India to introduce the concept of Lokayukta and Upa-Lokayuktas Act, 1971 in view of the recommendations made by the Administrative Reforms Commission headed by Morarji Desai in 1966.
  • The Maharashtra Lokayukta Institution came into being from 25th October, 1972.

Declaration under Article 370 (3)

In exercise of the powers conferred by Clause (3) of Article 370 read with Clause (1) of Article 370 of the Constitution of India, the President, on the recommendation of Parliament, is pleased to declare that, as from the 5th August, 2019, all clauses of the said Article 370 shall cease to be operative except the following which shall read as under, namely-

            "370. All provisions of this Constitution, as amended from time to time, without any modifications or exceptions, shall apply to the State of Jammu and Kashmir not withstanding anything contrary contained in article 152 or article 308 or any other article of this Constitution or any other provision of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir or any law, document, judgement, ordinance, order, by-law, rule, regulation, notification, custom or usage having the force of law in the territory of India, or any other instrument, treaty or agreement as envisaged under article 363 or otherwise."

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