Biosphere: Lithosphere, Hydrospher


  • The part of the Earth where life exists is called the Biosphere ('bios'means 'life').
  • The Earth is the only planet of the solar system that supports life. Life is possible because of its unique lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.


  • The uppermost layer of the Earth's crust which is capable of supporting life is called Lithosphere.
  • The Lithosphere (or land) covers two-sevenths or 29.22% (14,90,41,182 sq. km) of the total surface are. the earth.


  • Hydrosphere (or sea) covers five-sevenths or m accurately 70.78% (36,10,59,226 sq. km) of the total surface area of the earth.
  • Water is freely available in the gaseous, liquid and solid state.
  • It is necessary for carrying out chemical reactions within the bodies of the living organisms.
  • Water also dissolves and transports nutrients from the soil to the plants.
  • It is used by plants for making food.

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