Indian Polity & Constitution

Introduction - Indian polity & Constitution

The term Political Science is intimately related to the word "Politics".  Which itself is derived from the Greek word - "Polis" - that means a city-state, the general form of political organization in ancient Greece. T

examguru by ExamGuru

Evolution of Indian Constitution

Our Constitution: Our present constitution—the first Constitution of India framed and given to themselves by the people of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November, 1949. It came into full operation with effect from 2

examguru by ExamGuru

Constituent Assembly and Making of the Constitution

The Cabinet Mission envisaged the establishment of a Constituent Assembly to frame a Constitution for the country. Members of the Constituent Assembly were elected by the Provincial Legislative Assemblies. Each Province and each Indian State

examguru by ExamGuru

Different Sources of Indian Constitution

The skeleton of the constitution was derived from the Government of India Act 1935, though many provisions were imported from other constitutions of the world. Out of 395 Articles of the Constitution of India the text of almost 250 Articles are taken

examguru by ExamGuru

Important Parts, Articles of the Constitution

Parts & Articles of Indian Constitution Part Articles Subject Part I Article 1-4 The Union and its territory. Part II

examguru by ExamGuru

Schedules of Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India at the time of its adoption had only eight Schedules to which four more were added during the succeeding sixty-five years. Schedule Subject 1st Schedule

examguru by ExamGuru

Special Features of Indian Constitution / Federal & Unitary

The Constitution of India is the lengthiest and the most comprehensive of all the written constitutions of the world. Originally the Constitution of India consisted of 395 Articles divided into 22 parts and 8 Schedules (Now 25 Parts and 12 Sched

examguru by ExamGuru

The Preamble

The Preamble to the Constitution states the object which the Constitution seeks to establish and promote, and also aids the legal interpretation of the Constitution where the language is found ambiguous. The ideal embodied in the Objectives Reso

examguru by ExamGuru

Lapse of Paramountcy

When the Indian Independence Act 1947 was passed, it declared the lapse of suzerainty (paramountcy) of the crown in sec. 7(i)(b) of the Act. As from the appointed day-the suzerainty of His Majesty over the Indian States lapses, and with it, all

examguru by ExamGuru

Integration and Merger of Indian States

Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel and V.P. Menon played the most important role in the integration and merger of Indian States. The main objective of shaping the Indian States into sizeable or viable administrative units was sought to be achieved by a t

examguru by ExamGuru

The Union and its Territories

Article 1 lays-down that India, i.e. Bharat, shall be a Union of States. The Territory of India shall consist of  the Territories of the States, 2 the Union Territories specified in the First Schedule and 3. Such other Territories as may be a

examguru by ExamGuru

Reorganization of States

A Bill seeking to create a new State or alter boundaries of existing States can be introduced in either House of the Parliament, only on the recommendation of the President. President refers the State Reorganization Bill to the State Legislature

examguru by ExamGuru

Citizenship

The Constitution of India provides for a single and uniform citizenship for whole of India. Citizenship of India was granted to every person who domiciled in the territory of India at the commencement of the constitution and who was bom in t

examguru by ExamGuru

Fundamental Rights

Six Fundamental Rights have been provided by the Constitution: 1.  Right to equality (Article 14-18) 2.  Right to liberty (particular freedoms) (Article 19-22) 3.  Right against exploitation (Article 23-24) 4.  Right t

examguru by ExamGuru

The Writs

For enforcement of fundamental rights, the judiciary has been armed with the power to issue the writs. The power to issue these writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights is given by the Constitution to the Supreme Court [Ref: Art. 32]

examguru by ExamGuru

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)

The Directive Principles are contained in Part IV of the Constitution. They aim at providing the social and economic base of a genuine democracy. Important Directive Principles Broadly speaking, there are three types of Directive Principles aim

examguru by ExamGuru

Fundamental Duties

The Fundamental Duties (recommended by Sardar Swam Singh Committee) are eleven in numbers incorporated in Art. 51A [Part IVA], which has beer-incorporated by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976. Under this Article, it is the duty of every citizen of In

examguru by ExamGuru

Procedure for Amending the Constitution

The alteration of certain provisions of the Constitution is not considered amendment of the Constitution. Such provisions can be altered by the Parliament by a simple majority. Other provisions of the Constitution can be changed only by the proc

examguru by ExamGuru

The Doctrine of Basic Features

The Supreme Court of India enunciated the Doctrine of Basic Structure of Constitution in the Keshavananda Bharati Case. The Supreme Court held in the case of Keshavananda Bharati that there are certain basic features of the Constitution of India

examguru by ExamGuru

Some Important Constitutional Amendment Acts

1st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1951: This amendment added Article, 15(4) and Article, 19(6) and brought changes in the right to private property in pursuance with the decision of Supreme Court concerning fundamental rights. Ninth schedule to the C

examguru by ExamGuru

Executive of the Union The President (Art. 52)

Power of Executive of the Union is vested in the President of India (Art. 53). President is the head of the Union Executive. The President is the 1st Citizen of India and acts as the symbol of unity, integrity and solidarity of the nation. The

examguru by ExamGuru

Emergency Provisions

President can make proclamation of emergency under Art. 352 in case of war, external aggression or armed rebellion or threat thereof only on recommendation of the Cabinet. Every such proclamation must be laid before Parliament and it ceases to b

examguru by ExamGuru

The Vice-President

Provision of the Vice-President in our Constitution has been derived from the Constitution of America. Vice-President is indirectly elected by means of single transferable vote. State Legislatures do not take part in the election of Vice-Presi

examguru by ExamGuru

The Prime Minister and the Union Council of Ministers

In a parliamentary system of Government, the Prime Minister occupies a unique position as the most powerful function that controls both the Parliament and the Executive. Prime Ministers of India S.

examguru by ExamGuru

The Attorney & Auditor General of India

The Attorney-General for India The Attorney-General is the first Law Officer of the Government of India, who gives advice on legal matters and performs other duties of a legal character as assigned to him by the President. The Attorney-Genera

examguru by ExamGuru

The Parliament of India - President, Rajya Sabha & Lok Sabha

The Parliament of India consists of the President, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.            [Ref.: Art. 79] The President is a part of the Legislature, even though he or she does no

examguru by ExamGuru

Parliamentary Terms

Question Hour: The day’s business normally begins with the Question Hour during which questions asked by the members are answered by the Ministers. The different types of question are: 1. Starred Question: is one for which an oral answer

examguru by ExamGuru

The Supreme Court

Article 124 of the Constitution has the provision of establishment and constitution of Supreme Court. Vide the Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Amendment Act, 2008 (11 of 2009), the Supreme Court consisting of a Chief Justice of India and un

examguru by ExamGuru

The High Court

The High Court is the head of the Judiciary in the State. There are 25 High Courts in the country, three having jurisdiction over more than one state. Six High Courts (Allahabad, Bombay, Gauhati, Madhya Pradesh, Madras and Rajasthan) have

examguru by ExamGuru

Centre-State Relations

Centre-state relationship in India is looking towards federalism, which has been derived from the Constitution of Canada. The Constitution of India, being federal in structure, divides all powers (legislative, executive and financial) between th

examguru by ExamGuru

Executive of the States - Governor, State Legislature

The Governor [Article 153-163] The Governor of a state is appointed by the President and holds his office at the pleasure of the President. [Art. 156] Qualifications for the post of Governor are [Art. 157]: Should be a citizen of Ind

examguru by ExamGuru

Panchayati Raj

The term 'Panchayati Raj' India signifies the system of rural self-government. The subject of 'Local Government' is mentioned in the State List under the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. Panchayati Raj was constitution

examguru by ExamGuru

Municipalities

The term 'Urban Local Government' in India signifies the governance of an urban area by the people through their elected representatives. There are eight types of urban local govt, in India— (a)  Municipal corporation, &n

examguru by ExamGuru

Inter-State Relations

Article 131 provides for the judicial determination of disputes between states by vesting the Supreme Court with exclusive jurisdiction in the matter, while Art. 262 provides for the adjudication of one class of such disputes by an extra judi

examguru by ExamGuru

Planning Commission, NITI Aayog, NDC and Finance Commission

Planning Commission Planning Commission was not mentioned in the Constitution. Planning Commission was an economic advisory body set up by a resolution of the Union Cabinet on 15th March, 1950. Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru was the first and N

examguru by ExamGuru

Public Service Commissions

Constitution provides a Public Service Commission for the Union, a Public Sendee Commission for each State or a Joint Public Service Commission for a group of States. A Joint Public Service Commission can be created by Parliament in pursuance of

examguru by ExamGuru

Election & Election Commission

The general election is held on the basis of adult’s uffrage. Every person who is a citizen of India and not less than 18 years of age is entitled to vote at the election, provided he is not disqualified by law. Election to Parliamen

examguru by ExamGuru

Delimitation Commission of India

Delimitation Commission or Boundary Commission of India is a Commission established by Government of India under the provisions of the Delimitation Commission Act. The main task of the Commission is to redraw the boundaries of the various assemb

examguru by ExamGuru

The Official Language

The Official language of the Union is Hindi in Devanagri script [Art. 343]. English was to continue to be used as principal official language of the Union side-by-side with Hindi till 1965. The first Official Language Commission was appointed in

examguru by ExamGuru

National Symbol (Flag, Emblem, Anthem, Song, Calendar, etc.)

National Flag The National flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (Kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of

examguru by ExamGuru

Some Important Comments and Statements

Some Important Comments Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek, in general, to be himself at his best. — Laski “Democracy is the Government of the people, by the people and for the people." &

examguru by ExamGuru

Miscellaneous - Indian Polity & Constitution

Inter State Council is formed by the President. Election Commission is formed by the President. Vice President is also called as “His Superfluous Highness". Government of India passed the Act to protect the human rights in the yea

examguru by ExamGuru